Chapter 3 Routing & Input

Plumber’s first job is to execute R code in response to incoming HTTP requests, so it’s important to understand how incoming HTTP requests get translated into the execution of R functions.

An incoming HTTP request must be “routed” to one or more R functions. Plumber has two distinct families of functions that it handles: endpoints and filters.

Typically, when a request arrives to a Plumber router, Plumber begins by passing that request through its filters. Once the request has been processed by all the filters, the router will look for an endpoint that can satisfy the incoming request. If it finds one, it will invoke the endpoint and respond to the incoming request using the value the endpoint returned. If no endpoint matches the request, then a 404 Not Found error will be returned (the behavior of which can be controlled the set404Handler method).

3.1 Endpoints

Endpoints are the terminal step in the process of serving a request. An endpoint can simply be viewed as the logic that is ultimately responsible for generating a response to a particular request. A request will be checked against each available endpoint until it finds an endpoint willing to serve it at which point it stops looking; i.e. a request will not ever be processed by more than one endpoint. You create an endpoint by annotating a function like so:

#' Echo the parameter that was sent in
#' @get /echo
  list(msg = paste("The message is: ", msg))

This annotation specifies that this function is responsible for generating the response to any GET request to /hello. The value returned from the function will be used as the response to the request (after being run through a serializer to e.g. convert the response into JSON). In this case, a GET response to /hello would return the content ["hello world"] with a JSON Content-Type.

The annotations that generate an endpoint include:

  • @get
  • @post
  • @put
  • @delete
  • @head

These map to the HTTP methods that an API client might send along with a request. By default when you open a page in a web browser, that sends a GET request to the API. But you can use other API clients (or even JavaScript inside of a web browser) to form HTTP requests using the other methods listed here. There are conventions around when each of these methods should be used which you can read more about here. Note that some of these conventions carry with them security implications, so it’s a good idea to follow the recommended uses for each method until you fully understand why you might deviate from them.

Note that a single endpoint can support multiple verbs. The following function would be used to service any incoming GET, POST, or PUT request to /cars.

#' @get /cars
#' @post /cars
#' @put /cars

3.2 Filters

Plumber filters can be used to define a “pipeline” for handling incoming requests. This allows API authors to break down complex logic into a sequence of independent, understandable steps. Unlike endpoints, a request may go through multiple Plumber filters before a response is generated.

Typically, a Plumber router will pass a request through all the defined filters before it attempts to find an endpoint to satisfy the request. However, endpoints can “preempt” particular filters if they want to be considered for execution before some filter(s) registered in the router.

// TODO: graphic

Filters can do one of three things in handling a request:

  1. Forward control onto the next handler, potentially after mutating the request.
  2. Return a response itself and not forward to subsequent handlers
  3. Throw an error

These three options, and why each might be desired, are discussed below.

3.2.1 Forward to Another Handler

The most common behavior for a filter is to pass on the request to the next handler after mutating the incoming request or invoking some external side-effect. One common use case is to use a filter as a request logger:

#* Log some information about the incoming request
#* @filter logger
  cat(as.character(Sys.time()), "-", 
    req$REQUEST_METHOD, req$PATH_INFO, "-", 
    req$HTTP_USER_AGENT, "@", req$REMOTE_ADDR, "\n")

This filter is straightfoward: it invokes an external action (logging) and then calls forward() to pass control to the next handler in the pipeline (another filter or an endpoint).

Because the req and res parameters in Plumber are based on R environments, they exhibit “pass-by-reference” behavior. This means that changes that are made in one filter on the req or res object will be visible to other filters or endpoints also touching this same request or response.

A similar filter may mutate some state on the request or response object it’s given.

#* @filter setuser
  un <- req$cookies$user
  # Make req$username available to endpoints
  req$username <- un


In this case, the req object is going to be extended to have an additional property named username which represents a value looked up from a cookie. This req$username property would be available to all subsequent filters and endpoints processing this request. (Note that this example is not a secure system for authentication; see the section on using cookies to store state for a longer discussion on why.) Once it has modified the request object, it passes control to the next handler using forward().

3.2.2 Return a Response

It is also possible for filters to return a response. You may want to check that the request satisfies some constraint (like authentication) and – in certain cases – return a response without invoking any additional handlers. For example, a filter could be used to check that a user has authenticated.

#* @filter checkAuth
function(req, res){
  if (is.null(req$username)){
    res$status <- 401 # Unauthorized
    return(list(error="Authentication required"))
  } else {

A common cause of errors in Plumber APIs is forgetting to invoke forward() in your filters. In such a filter, the result of the last line will be silently returned as the response to the incoming request. This can cause your API to exhibit very odd behavior depending on what’s being returned. When you’re using filters, be sure to carefully audit all code paths to ensure that you’re either calling forward(), causing an error, or intentionally returning a value.

3.2.3 Throw an Error

Finally, a filter can throw an error. This can occur if a mistake is made in the code defining the filter or if the filter intentionally invokes stop() to trigger an error. In this case, the request will not be processed by any subsequent handlers and will immediately be sent to the router’s error handler. See router customization for more details on how to customize this error handler.

3.3 Dynamic Routes

In addition to having hard-coded routes like /hello, Plumber endpoints can have dynamic routes. Dynamic routes allow endpoints to define a more flexible set of paths against which they should match.

A common REST convention is to include the identifier of an object in the API paths associated with it. So to lookup information about user #13, you might make a GET request to the path /users/13. Rather than having to register routes for every user your API might possible encounter, you can use a dynamic route to associate an endpoint with a variety of paths.

users <- data.frame(
  username=c("kim", "john")

#' Lookup a user
#' @get /users/<id>
  subset(users, uid==id)

This API uses the dynamic path /users/<id> to match any request that is of the form /users/ followed by some path element like a number or letters. In this case, it will return information about the user if a user with the associated ID was found, or an empty object if not.

You can name these dynamic path elements however you’d like, but note that the name used in the dynamic path must match the name of the parameter for the function (in this case, both id).

You can even do more complex dynamic routes like:

#' @get /user/<from>/connect/<to>
function(from, to){
  # Do something with the `from` and `to` variables...

In both the hard-coded and dynamic examples given above, the parameters will be provided to the function as a character string.

3.4 Typed Dynamic Routes

Unless otherwise instructed, all parameters passed into plumber endpoints from query strings or dynamic paths will be character strings. For example, consider the following API.

#' @get /type/<id>
    id = id,
    type = typeof(id)

Visiting http://localhost:8000/types/14 will return:

  "id": ["14"],
  "type": ["character"]

If you only intend to support a particular data type for a particular parameter in your dynamic route, you can specify the desired type in the route itself.

#* @get /user/<id:int>
  next <- id + 1
  # ...

#* @post /user/activated/<active:bool>
  if (!active){
    # ...

Specifying the type of a dynamic path element will also narrow the paths that will match the endpoint. For instance, the path /users/123 will match the first endpoint, but /users/8e3k will not, since 8e3k is not an integer.

The following details the mapping of the type names that you can use in your dynamic types and how they map to R data types.

R Type Plumber Name
logical bool, logical
numeric double, numeric
integer int

3.5 Static File Handler

Plumber includes a static file server which can be used to host directories of static assets such as JavaScript, CSS, or HTML files. These servers are fairly simple to configure and integrate into your plumber application.

#* @assets ./files/static

This example would expose the local directory ./files/static at the default /public path on your server. So if you had a file ./files/static/branding.html, it would be available on your Plumber server at /public/branding.html.

You can optionally provide an additional argument to configure the public path used for your server. For instance

#* @assets ./files/static /static

would expose the directory not at /public, but at /static.

The “implementation” of your server in the above examples is just an empty list(). You can also specify a function() like you do with the other plumber annotations. At this point, the implementation doesn’t alter the behavior of your static server. Eventually, this list or function may provide an opportunity to configure the server by changing things like cache control settings.

If you’re configuring a Plumber router programmatically, you can instantiate a special static file router and mount it onto another router as discussed in the static file router section.

3.6 Input Handling

Plumber routes requests based exclusively on the path and method of the incoming HTTP request, but requests can contain much more information than just this. They might include additional HTTP headers, a query string, or a request body. All of these fields may be viewed as “inputs” to your Plumber API.

3.6.1 The Request Object

HTTP requests in Plumber are stored as environments and satisfy the Rook interface. The expected objects for all HTTP requests are the following.

Name Example Description
cookies list(cook="abc") A list of the cookies as described in Cookies
httpuv.version "1.3.3" The version of the underlying httpuv package
PATH_INFO "/" The path of the incoming HTTP request
postBody "a=1&b=2" The contents of the body of the request. Despite the name, it is available for any HTTP method.
QUERY_STRING "?a=123&b=abc" The query-string portion of the HTTP request
REMOTE_ADDR "" The IP address of the client making the request
REMOTE_PORT "62108" The client port from which the request originated
REQUEST_METHOD "GET" The method used for this HTTP request
rook.errors N/A See Rook docs
rook.input N/A See Rook docs
rook.url_scheme "http" The “scheme” (typically http or https).
rook.version "1.1-0" The version of the rook specification which this environment satisfies
SERVER_NAME "" The host portion of the incoming request. You may favor HTTP_HOST, if available.
SERVER_PORT "8000" The target port for the request
HTTP_* "HTTP_USER_AGENT" Entries for all of the HTTP headers sent with this request.

3.6.2 Query Strings

A query string may be appended to a URL in order to convey additional information beyond just the request route. Query strings allow for the encoding of character string keys and values. For example, in the URL, everything following the ? constitutes the query string. In this case, two variables (q and pretty) have been set (to bread and 1, respectively).

Plumber will automatically forward information from the query string into the function being executed by aligning the name of the query string with the name of the function parameter. The following example defines a search API that mimics the example from DuckDuckGo above but merely prints out what it receives.

#' @get /
search <- function(q="", pretty=0){
  paste0("The q parameter is '", q, "'. ",
         "The pretty parameter is '", pretty, "'.")

Visiting http://localhost:8000/?q=bread&pretty=1 will print:

["The q parameter is 'bread'. The pretty parameter is '1'."]

This is equivalent to calling search(q="bread", pretty="1"). If a parameter were not specified in the query string, it would just be omitted from the invocation of the endpoint. For example http://localhost:8000/?q=cereal would be equivalent to search(q="cereal"). The function would fall back to the default value of the pretty parameter (0), since that was defined in the function signature.

["The q parameter is 'cereal'. The pretty parameter is '0'."]

Including additional query string arguments that do not map to a parameter of the function has no effect. For instance http://localhost:8000/?test=123 will return the same results as calling search().

["The q parameter is ''. The pretty parameter is '0'."]

(Note that the raw query string is available as req$QUERY_STRING.)

Some web browsers impose limitations on the length of a URL. Internet Explorer, in particular, caps the query string at 2,048 characters. If you need to send large amounts of data from a client to your API, it would likely be a better idea to send it in a request body.

//TODO: Redundant keys?

3.6.3 Request Body

Another way to provide additional information inside an HTTP request is using the message body. Effectively, once a client specifies all the metadata about a request (the path it’s trying to reach, some HTTP headers, etc.) it can then provide a message body. The maximum size of a request body depends largely on the technologies involved (client, proxies, etc.) but is typically at least 2MB – much larger than a query string. This approach is most commonly seen with PUT and POST requests, though you could encounter it with other HTTP methods.

Plumber will attempt to parse the request body in one of two ways: if it appears that the message is JSON, then Plumber will parse the body as a JSON message; otherwise it will decode it as a standard query string. Any fields provided in the message body in either format will be passed through as parameters to the function.

Unfortunately, crafting a request with a message body requires a bit more work than making a GET request with a query string from your web browser, but you can use tools like curl on the command line or the httr R package. We’ll use curl for the examples below.

#' @post /user
function(req, id, name){
    id = id,
    name = name,
    raw = req$postBody

Running curl --data "id=123&name=Jennifer" "http://localhost:8000/user" will return:

  "id": [123],
  "name": ["Jennifer"],
  "raw": ["id=123&name=Jennifer"]

Alternatively, curl --data '{"id":123, "name": "Jennifer"}' "http://localhost:8000/user" (formatting the body as JSON) will have the same effect.

As demonstrated above, the raw request body is made available as req$postBody.

3.6.4 Cookies

If cookies are attached to the incoming request, they’ll be made available via req$cookies. This will contain a list of all the cookies that were included with the request. The names of the list correspond to the names of the cookies and the value for each element will be a character string. See the Setting Cookies section for details on how to set cookies from Plumber.

If you’ve set encrypted cookies (as discussed in the Encrypted Cookies section), that session will be decrypted and made available at req$session.

3.6.5 Headers

HTTP headers attached to the incoming request are attached to the request object. They are prefixed with HTTP_, the name of the header is capitalized, and hyphens are substituted for underscores. e.g. the Content-Type HTTP header can be found as req$HTTP_CONTENT_TYPE.

#' Return the value of a custom header
#' @get /

Running curl --header "customheader: abc123" http://localhost:8000 will return:

  "val": ["abc123"]

You can print out the names of all of the properties attached to the request by running print(ls(req)) inside an endpoint.

// TODO: Conflicts between path, query string, body?